cross and crucifix banner
Exploring the image of the cross and crucifix
Home Glossary World of Crosses History Articles About This Site Resources


Allen, J. Romilly. The High Crosses of Ireland. Reprint of 1887 edition. Felinfach: Llanerch Publishers, 1992.

Aznar, Jose Camon. La Pasion de Cristo en el Arte Espanol. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1949.

Belting, Hans. The Image and Its Public in the Middle Ages: Form and Function of Early Paintings of the Passion. Trans. by Mark Bartusis and Raymond Meyer. New Rochelle, NY: Aristide D. Caratzas, 1990.

Belting, Hans. Likeness and Presence: A History of the Image before the Era of Art. Translated by Edmund Jephcott. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Bodensieck, Julius, editor. The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church. Vol I. Minneapolis, Augsburg Publishing House, 1965.

Bigger, Francis Joseph. Irish Penal Crosses. (1713-1781). Belfast: W. &G. Baird, 1909.

Bladey, Conrad. Brigid of the Gael: A Guide for the Study of St. Brigid of Kildare. Linthicum, MD: Hutman Productions, 2000.

Bourget, Pierre. La Croix Huguenote. Paris: Les Bergers et les mages,1966.

Bowen. John R. Religions in Practice: An Approach to the Anthropology of Religion. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1998.

Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1997.

Budge, Wallis. Amulets and Talismans. New York, 1992.

Cannuyer, Christian. Coptic Egypt: The Christians of the Nile. New York: Henry Abrams, 2000.

Carswell, John. Coptic Tattoo Designs. Second edition. Beirut: Faculty of Arts and Sciences The American University of Beirut, 1958.

Cavarnos, Constantine. Guide to Byzantine Iconography: Volume 1. Boston: Holy Transfiguration Monastery, 1993.

Charlesworth, J. H. "Jesus and Jehohanan: An Archaeological Note on Cruxifixion," Expository Times, February 1973. Viewed January 19, 2005, on at

Chazelle, Celia. The Crucified God in the Carolingian Era: Theology and Art of Christs Passion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Cirlot, J.E. A Dictionary of Symbols. Second edition. Trans. Jack Sage. New York: Philospohical Library, 1971.

Clair, Jean. "The Wonderful Thing Called Sin," The Body of the Cross. Montreal: Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1992.

Cooper, J.C. An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols. London; Thames and Hudson, 1978.

Corrigan, Kathleen. "Text and Image on an Icon of the Crucifixion at Mount Sinai." The Sacred Image East and West. Edited by Robert Ousterhout and Leslie Brubaker. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Crispolti, Enrico. "Guttuso, Crucificion." The Body on the Cross.Montreal: The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1992.

Cotsonis, John A. Byzantine Figural Processional Crosses. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1994.

"Crucifixion," Encyclopedia Judaica. Vol 5. Jerusalem: Keeter Publishing House, 1973, pp. 1134-1135.

Derbes, Anne. Picturing the Passion in Late Medieval Italy: Narrative Painting, Franciscan Ideologies, and the Levant. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Didron, Adolphe Napoleon. Christian Iconography: The History of Christian Art in the Middle Ages. Vol. I. Trans. by E.J. Millington. Reprint from first edition, 1851. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1965.

Dillenberger, Jane. Secular Art with Sacred Themes. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1969.

Dillenberger, John. Images and Relics: Theological Perceptions and Visual Images in Sixteenth Century Europe. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Dower, John W. The Elements of Japanese Design: A Handbook of Family Crests, Heraldry and Symbolism. New York: John Weatherhill, 1971.

Drijvers, Jan Willem. Helena Augusta: The Mother of Constantine the Great and the Legend of Her Finding of the True Cross. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992.

Drury, John. Painting the Word: Christian Pictures and their Meanings. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1999.

Egan, Martha J. Relicarios: Devotional Miniatures from the Americas. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1993.

Englebert, Omer. St. Francis of Assisi: A Biography. Translated by Eve Marie Cooper. Ann Arbor, Michigan: 1979.

Finaldi, Gabriele. The Image of Christ. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery Publications Ltd, 2000.

Finigan, Jack. The Archeology of the New Testament: The Life of Jesus and the Beginning of the Early Church. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Finney, Paul Corby. "Cross," Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. Second edition. New York: Garland Publishing, 1999, pp. 303-305.

Finney, Paul Corby. "Orant," Encyclopedia of Early Christianity. Second edition. New York: Garland Publishing, 1999, pp. 831-832.

Fleury, Rohault de. Memoire sur les instruments de la Passion. Paris: L. Lesort, 1870.

Fox, Robin Lane. Pagans and Christians. New York: 1989.

Frederickson, N. Jaye. The Covenant Chain: Indian Ceremonial and Trade Silver. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada, 1980.

Friesen, Ilse E. The Female Crucifix: Images of St. Wilgefortis Since the Middle Ages. Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2001.

Gilbert, Steve. Tattoo History: A Source Book. New York, Juno Books, 2000.

Grabar, Andre. Ampoules de Terre Sainte (Monza, Bobbio). Paris: C. Klincksieck, 1958.

Grierson, Philip. Byzantine Coinage. Second edition. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1999. PDF version.

Guscin, Mark. The Oviedo Cloth. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 1998.

Grierson, Philip and Mays, Melinda. Catalogue of Late Roman Coins in the Dumbarton Oaks Collection and in the Whittemore Collection: From Arcadius and Honorius to the Accession of Anastasius. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1992.

Grigoire, Henri. "Everything But the Truth," The Conversion of Constantine. Edited by John Eadie. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.

Harbison, Peter. The Crucifixion in Irish Art. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publ., 2000.

Harris, Marguerite Tjader, Editor. Birgitta of Sweden: Life and Selected Revelations. Translated by Albert Ryle Kezel. New York : Paulist Press, 1990.

Hatt, Jean-Jacques. "Celtic Symbols," The Conversion of Constantine. Edited by John Eadie. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.

Heath, Sydney. In the Steps of the Pilgrims. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1951.

Heller, Steven. The Swastika: Symbol Beyond Redemption. New York: Allworth Press, 2000.

Hengel, Martin. Crucifixion: In the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross. trans. John Bowden. London: Fortress Press, 1977.

Herbst, Thomas Joseph. The Humanization of Christ in the Central Italian Panel Crucifixes of the Twelth and Thirteenth-Centuries Reflected in the Development of Franciscan Theology. MA Thesis, Graduate Thological Union and Franciscan School of Theology, April 1989.

Henry, Francoise. Irish High Crosses. Dublin, 1964.

Hewitt, Joseph William. "The Use of Nails in the Crucifixion," Harvard Theological Review, Vol 25, #1, January 1932, pp. 29-45.

Hinkle, William M. The Fleurs de Lis of the Kings of France 1285-1488. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1991.

Hope, W.H. St. John. An Introduction to Heraldry. Reprint of 1953 edition, A Grammar of English Heraldry. Mineola, NY: Dover, 2001.

Hulme, F. Edward. The History Principles and Practice of Symbolism in Christian Art. Reprint of 1891 edition. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1969.

Hurd, William. A New Universal History of the Religious Rites, Ceremonies, and Customs of the World. London: Alexander Hogg, 1790.

Husband, Timothy B. "The Winteringham Tau Cross and Ignis Sacer," Metropolitan Museum Journal, Vol 27, 1992.

Jensen, Robin Margaret. Understanding Early Christian Art. London: Routledge, 2000.

Judson, J. Richard. Rubens: The Passion of Christ. London : Harvey Miller, 2000.

Kodansha, Encyclopedia of Japan

Kennedy, Charles. "Early Christians and the the Anchor," The Biblical Archeologist, Vol 38 (1975), 115-123.

Knipping, John B. Iconography of the Counter Reformation in the Netherlands: Heaven on Earth. Volume II. Nieuwkoop: B. de Graaf, 1974.

Kyle, Donald G. Spectacles of Death in Ancient Rome. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2001.

Laliberte, Norman and West, Edward N. The History of the Cross. New York: Macmillan Company, 1960.

Lebrun, Francois. "The Two Reformations: Communal Devotion and Personal Piety," A History of Private Life: III-Passions of the Renaissance. Edited by Roger Chartier. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989. pp. 69-109.

Livingstone, E.A. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Second edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Lopez, Gesela Ripoll. "The Formation of Visigothic Spain," The Art of Medieval Spain A.D. 500-1200.Editor John P. O’Neil. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993.

"The Lore of Craftmanship in Cuzco," Inka Journal, 2000 (6). Retrieved December 28, 2000 from

Martin, Dennis D. "Paschal Lamb and Bread of Life," Ecce Agnus Dei: Sacrificial Imagery of Christ 1350-1750. Chicago:Loyola University of Chicago, 1994, 27-33.

Mathews, Thomas F. The Clash of Gods: A Reinterpretation of Early Christian Art. Princeton: Princton University Press, 1993.

McAndrew, John. The Open-Air Churches of Sixteenth-Century Mexico: Atrios, Posas, Open Chapels, and Other Studies. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.

McCay, John A. The Other Spanish Christ: A Study in the Spiritual History of Spain and South America. New York: MacMillan, 1933.

McGee, Ratha Doyle. Symbols: Signposts of Devotion Nashville: 1962.

Meggs, Phillip. A History of Graphic Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

Merbeck, Mitchell B. The Thief, the Cross and the Wheel: Pain and the Spectacle of Punishment in Medieval and Renaissance Europe. Chicago; 1999.

Metford, JCJ. Dictionary of Christian Lore and Legend. London: Thames and Hudson, 1983.

Meyendorf, John. "The Role of Christ: 1. Christ as Savior in the East." Christian Spirituality: Origins to the Twelfth Century. New York: Crossroad, 1985.

Miller, Madeline. A Treasury of the Cross. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956.

Moore, Eine. "Ethiopian Crosses," Religious Art of Ethiopia. Edited by Walter Raunig. Stuttgart: Insitut fur Auslandsbeziehungen, 1973.

Mould, D.D.C. Pulin. Saint Brigid. London: 1964.

Murray, Alan V. "‘Mighty Against the Enemies of Christ’; The Relic of the True Cross in the Armies of the Kingdom of Jerusalem," The Crusades and Their Sources: Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton, edited by John France and William Zajac. Brookfield, Vt: Ashgate Publishing, 1998.

Murray, Peter and Murray, Linda. The Oxford Companion to Christian Art and Architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Neubecker, Otto. Heradry, Sources, Symbols, and Meaning. Twickenham: Tiger Books, 1997.

O’Neil, John P., Editor. The Art of Medieval Spain AD 500-1200. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993.

O’Neil, John P., Editor. The Treasury of Saint Peter’s. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1982.

Nolan, Mary Lee and Nolan, Sidney. Christian Pilgrimage in Modern Western Europe. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina., 1989.

Pastoureau, Michel. Heraldry: An Introduction to a Noble Tradition. Translated by Francisca Garvie. New YOrk: Harry N. Adams, 1997.

Pearman, Sara Jane. "The Iconographic Development of the Cruciform Throne of Grace from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century." Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve, 1974.

Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974.

Pelikan, Jaraslav. Jesus Through the Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999.

Pocknee, C.E. Cross and Crucifix in Christian Worship and Devotion. London: A. R. Mowbrays, 1962.

Quenot, Michel. The Resurrection and the Icon. Translated by Michael Breck. Brookline, MS: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1997.

Pickering, F.P. Literature and Art in the Middle Ages. Coral Gables, FL; University of Miami Press, 1970.

Rest, Frederich. Our Christian Symbols. Cleveland: The Pilgrim Press, 1982.

Richardson, Hilary and Scarry, John. An Introduction to Irish High Crosses. Dublin, Mercier Press, 1990.

Robertson, David Alan. "Introduction," Ecce Agnus Dei: Sacrificial Imagery of Christ 1350- 1750. Chicago: Loyola University of Chicago, 1994, 7-18.

Roque, Alfredo Vilchis. Infinitas Gracias: Contemporary Votive Painting. Translated by Elizabeth Bell. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2003.

Sandin, Karl Ayers. "Middle Byzantine Bronze Crucifixes of Intermediate Size: Form, Use and Meaning." Ph.D. diss., Rutgers, 1992.

Scavizzi, Giuseppe. The Controversy on Images from Calvin to Baronius. New York : P. Lang, 1992.

Schiller, Gertrud. Iconography of Christian Art: Volume II The Passion of Jesus Christ. Translated by Janet Seligman. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society Ltd., 1972.

Sloyan, Gerard S. The Crucifixion of Jesus: History, Myth, Faith. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995.

Spear, Richard E. The Divine Guido: Religion, Sex, Money, and Art in the World of Giodo Reni. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Steinberg, Leo. The Sexuality of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Sobrino, Jon. Jesus in Latin America. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1992.

Souza, Marina de Mello e. "Aspects of Black Brazilian Catholicism Inscribed in Magical-Religious Objects," Number 249: Brazilian Ministry of Culture Public Policy Scholars, 1999-2000. Washington, D.C.:Latin American Program, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2001, pp. 5-31. PDF version at

Stephen, George. Queen Dagmar’s Cross Facsimile of the Enameled Jewel in the Old Northern Museum, Cheapenhaven, Denmark. London, 1863.

Stevenson, Seth William, Smith, C. Roach, and Madden, Frederic W. Dictionary of Roman Coins, Republican and Imperial. London:George Bell and Sons, 1889.

Streit, Jacob. Sun and Cross: The Development from Megalithic Culture to Early Christianity in Ireland. Translated by Hugh Latham. Edinburgh: Floris Books, 1984.

Tarasov, Oleg. Icon and Devotion. Translated by Robin Milner-Gulland. London: Reaktion Books, 2002.

The Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius. Translated by George E. Ganss. St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1992.

Thoby, Paul. Le Crucifix des Origines au Concile de Trent. Nantes: Bellanger, 1959.

Tongeren, Louis Van. Exaltation of the Cross: Toward the Origins of the Feast of the Cross and the Meaning of the Cross in Early Medieval Liturgy. Leuven: Peeters, 2000.

Trexler, Richard C. "Gendering Jesus Crucified,"Iconography at the Crossroads: Papers from the Colloquium Sponsored by the Index of Christian Art, Princeton University, 23-24 March 1990. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990 Edited by Brendan Cassidy.

Troyer, Johannes. The Cross as Symbol and Ornament. Philadelphia: The Westminister Press, 1961.

Vassilaki, Maria, editor. Mother of God: Representations of the Virgin in Byzantine Art. Abbeville Publishing Group, New York, 2000.

Weitzmann, Kurt. "Three Painted Crosses at Sinai," Studies in the Arts at Sinai. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.

Wilkinson, Richard H. Symbol and Magic in Egyptian Art. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1999.

Wilson, Eva. Ornament 8000 Years: An Illustrated Handbook of Motifs. New York, Harry N. Abrams, 1994.

Wilson, Thomas. Swastika: The Earliest Known Symbol and its Migrations. Reprinted from 1894 edition. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2002.

Winston-Allen, Anne. Stories of the Rose: The Making of the Rosary in the Middle Ages. University Park, PA: Pennsylvannia State University Press, 1997.

Woodcock, Thomas and Robinson, John Martin. The Oxford Guide to Heraldry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Zazur, Elizabeth Netto Calil Zazur and Lovell, Charles Muir. Art and Faith in Mexico: The Nineteenth-Century Retablo Tradition. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2001.

Zugibe, Frederick T. The Cross and The Shroud: A Medical Inquiry into the Crucifixion. New York: Paragon House Publishers, 1988.

A listing of recent articles and books from a European perspective can be found at Stauros International Association, an organization dedicated to the study and memory of the passion of Christ.